22 Mar 2016

Adsorption Process and Destructive Adsorption

 Four different adsorbent materials were selected in the adsorption test runs: alumina (Al2O3), silica gel (SiO2), GAC (Calgon BPL) and PAC (Calgon WPH). The first two are widely used in column chromatography as adsorption and filtration media, and they are also very good catalysts. GAC and PAC are commonly used adsorbents in environmental applications. The simple comparison about the size, pore ......

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10 Mar 2016

Sonochemical Process Ⅱ

 From this point of view, 20m/m% is the maximum amount of water considered to add into original used oil samples for making emulsions (S1). (It is easier to prepare a specific weight of used oil samples than a specific volume ofused oil. Hence, in this study, oil samples are all prepared by weight.) If samples that are more representative could be acquired in the future (with higher average water......

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01 Mar 2016

Sonochemical Process

 Since the size of the used oil sample acquired from different source is individually different, it is important to decide how to take representative subsamples each time from the original big sample bottles (at least with volume size of one gallon) before conducting any experiment. A procedure was determined ⎯ the big sample bottles were shaken with inversion for 30 seconds and then allowed to ......

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13 Jan 2016

Heavy Metals in Used Lube Oils

 Factors such as surfactant type, H2 source, radical source, water content, reaction time, purging gas, catalysts that could possibly affect the destruction efficiencies were studied. Sonochemical process, adsorption process, and combined destructive adsorption process will be evaluated individually and the destruction efficiencies will be compared.  he initial study for applying the sonochemic......

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14 Dec 2015

Other Evaluation Techniques

 PCBs content in used oil is essential for determining how the used oil is going to be recycled or treated. Hence, it’s important to screen PCBs content in bulk used oil. If PCBs content is too high, then the used oil cannot be reprocessed or re-refined. Many screening techniques have been developed for PCBs in used oil, such as total organic halide methods, simplified chromatographic procedures......

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26 Nov 2015

Information of Water/Oil Emulsions

 The crucial point about applying ultrasound energy to destroy or decompose the pollutants in the oil-based sample is to make good water/oil emulsions. It is important to define, therefore, what is a good water/oil emulsion. Both light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to study the size distribution of emulsion by direct observation.The resolution and depth of field......

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12 Nov 2015

Heavy Metals

 Individual metal concentration in oil or in water is determined by ICP-MS. After proper dilution (for oil phase, 10 or 20mg oil to 1ml ultra-pure HNO3), samples are placed in small teflon tubes and subjected to acid digestion while heated at >100ºC under pressure for at least 24 hours and later washed with 1% dilute HNO3. Metal concentration is then determined by ICP-MS (Fission, Model PQII-Plu......

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03 Nov 2015

Moisture content

 Moisture content is also considered as one of the contaminants in used lube oil since virgin lube oil does not contain detectable amount of moisture. Water contamination is an economic concern for everyone dealing with used oil because of the added cost associated with handling the water (e.g., dehydrating step in re-refining). In our proposed treatment process, however, a certain amount of wate......

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28 Oct 2015

Heating/Microwave Heating Technique

 Increasing the temperature of the emulsion is commonly used in refining and oilfield industries to enhance emulsion breaking. Heat addition, however, is usually based on the overall economic picture of a treatment facility, minimum heat input is favored to avoid the lost of light end products and to save the consumption of flue gas. Microwave heating emulsification technology is currently used i......

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21 Aug 2015

Water Separation Techniques

    Water is considered as a contaminant species that invades lube oil during use. For any used oil recycling/reuse option, water has to be removed as a waste. For example, in re-refining process, water is removed in the early dehydration step by flashing the processing oil at near atmospheric condition. Water vapor is condensed and collected for treatment. In most cases, phenolic compounds an......

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13 Aug 2015

Water-in-Oil Emulsions

 When water phase and organic phase mix together with the presence of surfactant (the emulsifying agent), emulsion or even microemulsion is formed. For used lube oil sample, organic phase volume is much larger than water phase volume, so it is a water- 75 in-oil (W/O) emulsion case. Oil is the continuous phase as water droplets are dispersed in oil. By definition, micellar aggregates often occur ......

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04 Aug 2015

Sources of Used Oil Samples III

 Used automotive lube oil sample was tested as the feedstock for the biomass production. Since the characteristics of automotive used oils may be very similar from batch to batch (need to be verified, of course), it could make the optimal pretreatment process much simpler to decide. Another good source of used oil is the used cooking oil. According to the market research, recycled used cooking oi......

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